102 Current news about the topic genomes

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Pioneering discovery of an odor-detecting receptor enhancer

13-Oct-2017

Each odor-detecting neuron (referred to as olfactory sensory neuron from here on), chooses a single odorant receptor gene from a fairly large number of options that are split into class I (fish-like) and class II (terrestrial-specific) odorant receptors. This strict selectiveness of sensory ...

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‘Hypermutators’ Drive Pathogenic Fungi to Evolve More Rapidly

28-Sep-2017

Mutations tend to get a bad rap, and deservedly so. A single defect in our DNA can strip us of our sight, thicken our lungs with mucus, prompt us to bleed to death, weaken our muscles or fill our organs with tumors. But in certain situations, a mutation can actually be a source of strength. For ...

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New 3-D imaging reveals how human cell nucleus organizes DNA and chromatin of its genome

31-Jul-2017

Sixty-four years ago, James Watson and Francis Crick described the now-iconic double helix structure of DNA. A team of researchers at the University of California San Diego School of Medicine and the Salk Institute for Biological Studies describe development and application of new electron ...

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Small RNA fragments defend the genome when it's 'naked'

03-Jul-2017

Our genomes are minefields, studded with potentially damaging DNA sequences over which hundreds of thousands of sentries stand guard. These sentries, called epigenetic marks, attach to the double helix at such spots and prevent the underlying DNA sequences from springing into destructive ...

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Disentangling chloroplast genetics

15-May-2017

Proper DNA inheritance is essential for healthy cell growth and division. The same goes for the genetic material found in chloroplasts: the energy centers of all plant cells. Chloroplast genomes -- likely vestiges of ancestral bacteria -- are organized into DNA-protein complexes called nucleoids. ...

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Genome sequence of fuel-producing alga announced

12-May-2017

The genome of the fuel-producing green microalga Botryococcus braunii has been sequenced by a team of researchers led by a group at Texas A&M AgriLife Research. The report comes after almost seven years of research, according to Dr. Tim Devarenne, AgriLife Research biochemist and principal ...

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Study outlines framework for identifying disease risk in genome sequence

13-Jan-2017

Imagine a day when you visit the doctor's office for your annual physical. Your physician orders routine tests - cholesterol, glucose and blood count - but they also order a sequence of your genome, all 3 billion letters of it. Routine genomic testing is not far away, according to researchers at ...

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DNA markers distinguish between harmless, deadly bacteria

21-Dec-2016

The virulent pathogen that causes the disease tularemia, or "rabbit fever," was weaponized during past world wars and is considered a potential bioweapon. Through a new study of the coccobacillus Francisella, Los Alamos National Laboratory researchers are working to use DNA markers to discern ...

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Ultrashort cell-free DNA reveals health of organ transplants

11-Jul-2016

When cells die, whether through apoptosis or necrosis, the DNA and other molecules found in those cells don't just disappear. They wind up in the blood stream, where degraded bits and pieces can be extracted. This cell-free DNA (cfDNA) is degraded due to its exposure to enzymes in the blood but ...

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Watching 'jumping genes' in action

Real-time observation of transposon activity in living cells

16-Jun-2016

"Jumping genes" are ubiquitous. Every domain of life hosts these sequences of DNA that can "jump" from one position to another along a chromosome; in fact, nearly half the human genome is made up of jumping genes. Depending on their specific excision and insertion points, jumping genes can ...

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