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The Determination of Hazardous Substances According to RoHS and WEEE Directives

28-08-2005

1st July 2006 is an important deadline for the electro- and electronics industries. This date bans hazardous substances like lead, cadmium, mercury, hexavalent chromium and polybrominated biphenyls and diphenyl ethers from electro- and electronic equipment. This restriction, even though in discussion since 1991, has become more and more important from year to year because of tons of electronic waste releasing toxic substances which are accumulated in the environment, the food chain and all human beings. In order to enforce the substances ban and the limitation or substitution of hazardous components, elemental analysis is obviously the most important control measure for monitoring limiting values. This requires precise analytical systems such as X-ray fluorescence, ICP- and atomic absorption spectrometers. These instruments are able to detect trace concentrations of hazardous compounds - for example cadmium, using an atomic absorption spectrometer in the flame atomization mode up to 0.1 mg/L, or using the di...

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Sum parameters "on trail"

Continuous TOC determination in environmental analysis

27-05-2005

Identification of organic pollutants in wastewater is essential for performance evaluation, construction and operation of a wastewater treatment plant. Several parameters are currently used in wastewater analysis applications. The advantages of TOC analyses are apparent especially during continuous monitoring...

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Accurate Mass and TIPTM: Two Dimensions for Elemental Composition Determination: microTOFTM Featuring Unique TIPTM

10-03-2005

The ESI-TOF mass spectrometers micrOTOF and micrOTOF focus do not only provide accurate mass measurements but additionally describe the True Isotopic Pattern TIPTM. For molecular formula generation this unique combination significantly reduces the number of possible formula candidates and the elemental composition of compounds with molecular weights far higher than 500 Da can unequivocally be determined...

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Beyond Quality Control

Using design of experiments methodology means increased efficiency and improved product quality.

08-03-2005

Product quality in any arena can be traced back to variations in parts, materials, people, and processes. And since it has been observed that all work can be broken down into processes, all processes, manufacturing or administrative in nature, have inherent variability...

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Pressure Digestion for Sample Preparation

01-02-2005

What analyst does not wish for a universal method for processing all his or her samples? Pressure digestion represents just such a procedure for sample digestions and is therefore one of the standard sample preparation procedures currently employed in analytical chemistry for element quantification...

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Reaching the Next Level of Microwave-assisted Organic Synthesis

27-01-2005

Microwave-assisted organic synthesis (MAOS) has become an increasingly popular discipline in modern chemical method development. At first, reaction optimization and method development on a small scale were the main areas of interest in MAOS. However, the growing acceptance and success of this innovative microwave technology revealed the necessity for large-scale synthesis of valuable compounds using microwave heating, especially in industrial laboratories...

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Half a Century of Chromatography with Agilent and Predecessors

One Century of Chromatography with Twsett (1903)

01-10-2004

Twsett originated the chromatography with his work about the separation of chlorophyll in 1903. For some time it was relatively quite around this new technology. Exceptions were the workings of Kuhn and Lederer (1931) as well as of Hesse (1936 and 1942). A break through succeeded to E. Cremer during the 40ies, but hardly considered caused by the war events, what however in the years 1950/51 by the conception of the gas chromatography suddenly changed and involved a rapid development...

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SRI Gaschromatographs: "Customized GC" since 1986

30-09-2004

Since 1986 SRI Instruments Inc. (Las Vegas) develops gas chromatography systems with the main objective to build an instrument which can easily be adapted to the customer's needs. The result was a modular built GC which can be equipped with up to six different detectors to cover a wide range of analytical methods...

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Simulated Moving Bed Chromatography: from chiral molecules to biocompounds

29-09-2004

The Simulated moving bed (SMB) technology was developed in the '60s and used for large-scale separations of hydrocarbons in the oil industry. The SMB concept has been extended towards new fields of application since then, first in the large-scale food industry, e.g. separation of sugars, and lately in the separation of fine chemicals, particularly chiral molecules where it is now an established technique...

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From Sephadex to GE Healthcare

29-09-2004

The success of chromatography as a technique for separating biomolecules is inevitably linked to the introduction of the gel filtration medium Sephadex(TM) by Pharmacia AB in 1959...

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