CRISPR/Cas9 genome-edited cells express nanoBRET-donor that monitors protein interaction and trafficking more
Homogeneous IgG AlphaLISA® assay performed on BMG LABTECH's PHERAstar Plus
Z' value of 0.92 indicates a highly robust assay combined with high quality instrumentationFranka Ganske 1 and Keith Ansell 2
1 BMG LABTECH, Offenburg, Germany; 2 MRC-T, Burtonhole Lane, London, UK
Immunoglobulins or antibodies are proteins that are involved in the immune response. They bind with high affinity at exogenous substances (antigens). Immunoglobulins (Ig) are classified according to the structure. The most present antibody in plasma is IgG. It is part of the secondary antibody response and is built 3 weeks after antigen recognition. There are several assays for the determination of IgG commercially available. This application note shows the detection of IgG using an AlphaLISA® assay performed on BMG LABTECH’s PHERAstar Plus.
The AlphaLISA® technology from PerkinElmer is based on the AlphaScreen® detection method: Upon laser excitation at 680 nm of Donor beads ambient oxygen is converted into singlet oxygen released at a rate of up to 60,000 molecules per second. Singlet oxygen molecules have a short lifetime (4 µs in aqueous solutions) and diffuse of no more than 200 nm. When a biomolecular interaction brings the Donor and Acceptor beads in proximity, the singlet oxygen reaches the Acceptor bead and a cascade of chemical reactions is initiated producing a greatly amplified luminescence signal. The assay principle of the IgG AlphaLISA® assay is given in Figure 1.
Anti-IgG antibody coated Acceptor beads and biotinylated anti-IgG antibody bind to IgG. In a second step streptavidin-coated Donor beads are added and bind to the biotylated anti-IgG antibody. Donor and Acceptor beads are in close proximity when IgG is present in the sample. After laser excitation at 680 nm a cascade of chemical reactions is started resulting in a luminescence signal at 615 nm. If no IgG is present, no light emission is detected.
Material and Methods
- AlphaLISA® IgG Kit, PerkinElmer #AL205C
- White opaque 384-well OptiPlate™, PerkinElmer #6007290
- White 384-well small volume plate, Greiner #784075
- PHERAstar Plus microplate reader, BMG LABTECH, Offenburg, Germany, Figure 2
The IgG AlphaLISA® standard curve was performed in accordance with the kit protocol. Briefly, a serial dilution of lyophilized IgG was prepared in AlphaLISA® immunoassay buffer. A mix of Acceptor beads and biotinylated antibody were added to each of the 12 standards and to the blank (contains no IgG). Following 60 min incubation at room temperature, Donor beads were added. As Donor beads are light sensitive this step has to be done under subdued or green light. After another 30 min of incubation in the dark the AlphaLISA® signal is measured in the PHERAstar Plus. BMG LABTECH has developed an AlphaLISA® specific optic module and the instrument settings for a 384-well plate can be found below.
|Optic module||AlphaLISA® 680 615|
|Positioning delay||0.10 s|
|Excitation time||0.30 s|
|Integration start||0.34 s|
|Integration time||0.30 s|
850 µL of each standard and blank were prepared in vials. After incubation a certain amount of reaction mix was transferred into the two different types of 384-well microplates. 50 µL were used for the 384-well standard plate and 17 µL were the final volume in the 384-well small volume plate. Each plate consisted of 12 replicates for both the standards containing different IgG concentrations and the blank. Because of the different fill heights it is recommended to perform a focus adjustment once for every plate type. The focal height will be optimized resulting in the highest possible sensitivity.
Fig. 3: A typical log-log IgG standard curve recorded on the PHERAstar Plus using the AlphaLISA® specific optic module in 384-well format.
Results and Discussion
Figure 3 shows an IgG standard curve obtained in 384-well plates using a volume of 50 µL.
For low concentrations the linear - linear scale is preferred (Figure 4). With the MARS data analysis software both standard curves can easily be plotted.
Fig. 4: A linear-linear chart at low IgG concentrations obtained with the MARS data and analysis software.
Z’ values, a standard in evaluating HTS methods, and the limit of IgG detection were calculated for both plate types (Table 1). The formulas for both calculations are given below.
where µp = mean of “positive control” (max ratio), µn = mean of “negative control” (min ratio), and σ = the corresponding standard deviations.
The limit of detection (LOD) was determined by interpolating the average blank values + 3x the standard deviation of the blank on the standard curve (4-parameter fit).
Table 1: Z' values and LOD of IgG in 50 µL and in 17 µL
small volume plate
|Limit of IgG
The IgG AlphaLISA® detection kit was successfully performed on the PHERAstar Plus. The sensitivity stated by the kit manufacturer was reached in 384-well standard plates and was slightly better than in 384-well small volume format. Nonetheless, we could show that it is possible to decrease the assay volume to 17 µL with good sensitivity and very good Z’values.
The multidetection HTS reader PHERAstar Plus shows great performance in AlphaScreen® and AlphaLISA® mode in 384-well small volume plate format. The easy to use software allows simple assay optimization regarding sensitivity and read times. The PHERAstar Plus has been designed to read all HTS detection modes (fluorescence intensity, timeresolved fluorescence, fluorescence polarization, luminescence, AlphaScreen®, and absorbance) in all plate formats up to 1536 wells.
Immunoglobulins or antibodies are proteins that are involved in the immune response. That makes them interesting drug targets. This application note shows the detection of the immunoglobulin IgG using an AlphaLISA® assay performed on BMG LABTECH's PH more
The potential for cardiotoxic side-effects continues to challenge the development of small molecule based therapies. These intolerable side-effects are often precipitated by drug-induced long QT syndrome (LQT), which is often linked to blocking the h more
BMG LABTECH has recorded a rapid increase in revenue over the past years. A new company building provides the additional capacity required for the company's anticipated business growth over the longer term. The expansion is a necessary response to the global demand for BMG LABTECH products ... more
Robert J. Lefkowitz from Duke University, along with Brian Kobilka from Stanford University, were just awarded the 2012 Nobel Prize in Chemistry for their research and discovery of the receptor protein that binds to adrenaline, that is the beta-adrenergic receptor. A receptor protein crosse ... more
One of the first uses of the microscope by Louis Pasteur was to determine why beer and wine soured; he later hypothesized the Germ Theory of Disease. It’s in that same spirit that BMG LABTECH congratulates Dr. Gary Spedding for his proposal to use the new SPECTROstar Nano to modernize beer ... more
- 1Microwave freeze drying of fruits & vegetables
- 2Detection of NADH and NADPH with the Omega's High Speed, Full UV/Vis Absorbance Spectrometer
- 3Comparing ICP-OES Analyzers' Plasma Views: Axial, Radial, Dual, MultiView, and New Dual Side-On Interface
- 4Titration Handbook – Theory and Practice of Titration
- 5Why Flame AAS Users Are Moving Up to ICP-OES
- 6Nitrogen / Protein Analysis for Starch
- 7Field-Flow Fractionation - The Universal Separation Principle for Particle and Macromolecule Characterization
- 8Predictor(TM) hERG Fluorescence Polarization Assay Kit performed on the PHERAstar/PHERAstar Plus
- 9Polyether-Modified Silicones for Cosmetic Applications
- 10Automated Dynamic Light Scattering