31 Current white paper

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Field-Flow Fractionation - The Universal Separation Principle for Particle and Macromolecule Characterization

22-09-2010

High molecular weight polymers, bio molecules or particles in a range of a few nanometers up to several microns are more and more important in science and technology. Many applications are based on the specific properties of these materials. For this reason, an exact knowledge of the molar mass or particle sizes distribution is essential for later application as well as for optimization of the production processes or quality control. In addition the knowledge about the chain structure of macromolecules or biopolymers as well as about the shape of particles is often necessary. For this reason those samples, which often can be very complex systems, have to be separated according to parameters such as e.g. hydrodynamic volume or molecular weight. After the separation process the resulting narrow dispersed fractions are detected with different techniques....

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Automated Dynamic Light Scattering

09-11-2009

DLS analysis is a widely applied, non-invasive method for measuring the effective size of molecules in solution. This technique yields valuable information for the characterization of molecules and particles. It facilitates formerly laborious and time consuming measurements, e.g. screening for aggregates or determining optimal crystallization conditions for proteins. The Wyatt Plate Reader is the instrument of choice for any application where molecular size, stability and aggregation are of interest. It reads industry standard microplates with up to 1536 samples automatically and temperature-controlled, if desired. The applications of the technique are wide ranging and include many of the fastest growing areas of research - proteins, biomaterials, liposomes and micelles as well as the established uses for particle sizing and aggregation detection. Conscious of the numerous characterization challenges in the area of drug delivery systems and therapeutic antibodies...

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Homogeneous IgG AlphaLISA® assay performed on BMG LABTECH's PHERAstar Plus

Z' value of 0.92 indicates a highly robust assay combined with high quality instrumentation

27-04-2009

Immunoglobulins or antibodies are proteins that are involved in the immune response. That makes them interesting drug targets. This application note shows the detection of the immunoglobulin IgG using an AlphaLISA® assay performed on BMG LABTECH's PHERAstar Plus. The AlphaLISA® technology utilizes oxygen to start a cascade of chemical reactions resulting in a luminescence signal at 615 nm. Sensitivity and Z´values obtained in different plate formats are presented....

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"Green Chemstry" in the Laboratory

Using mills as efficient and ecologically friendly synthesis reactors

25-06-2008

The term "green chemistry" is commonly used to describe chemical procedures which meet specific requirements with regards to the conservation of resources and protection of the environment. The objective is to avoid undesired by-products by selecting adequate reaction procedures and media. A typical example is the production of bio fuel which has become an ecologically friendly alternative for many drivers....

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Polyolefins: Determination of Molecular Weight and Branching Structure by GPC/SEC

16-06-2008

Polyethylene and Polypropylene are so-called Polyolefins. They are produced in large amounts every year. Depending on the process and catalyst used linear or branched polymers can be produced. In case of e. g. Polyethylene there are at least three polymer types: HDPE (High Density Polytheylene), LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) and LLDPE (Linear Low Density Polytehylene). HDPE and LLDPE are made of linear or only slightly branched macromolecules with a high level of crystallinity. They form a dense structure in the final product. LDPE is made of highly branched molecules that form a final structure with low density due to a low degree of crystallinity....

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Molecular Probes® NanoOrange® Assay Performed on BMG LABTECH FLUOstar OPTIMA Microplate Reader

08-05-2008

The field of proteomics has expanded dramatically in recent years with research on a whole host of organisms. Techniques such as two dimensional difference gel electrophoresis (2D DIGE) require the accurate quantitation of protein, as up to three labelled samples can be loaded on a single gel for comparison. Assay methods for determining protein quantitation include absorbance at 280 nm(1), the Bradford assay(2), Lowry assay(3), BCA method(4) and more sensitive assays such as Fluoroprofile® (Sigma-Aldrich) and NanoOrange® (Molecular Probes®)5()....

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Bradford Assay Performed on BMG LABTECH´s FLUOstar Omega with new Evaluation Software

28-02-2008

Determining the protein concentration of samples is a necessary and often used method in biochemistry. Different colorimetric protein assays have been developed. The most commonly used methods are the Bradford assay, the Lowry assay and the BCA assay. In this application note we demonstrate how to determine the protein concentration of samples by using the Bradford assay and the new FLUOstar Omega....

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Mutation Scanning of the Cytidine Deaminase Gene by High-Resolution Melting Curve Analysis Using the LightCycler® 480 System

12-09-2007

Alexandre Evrard1,2, Caroline Raynal1,2, Jean-Christophe Boyer2, Lionel Le Gallic2, and Serge Lumbroso1,2 1Institut de Génomique Fonctionnelle, Département d'Oncologie Moléculaire et Cellulaire, Montpellier, France, 2Laboratoire de Biochimie, Hôpital Carémeau, CHU Nîmes, France *Corresponding author...

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Genotypes in Smokers: Correlations with Smoking Behavior

12-09-2007

Smoking behavior is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Moreover, smoking initiation and smoking persistence have a heritability of at least 50%. A large body of work has been dedicated to associating multiple genetic markers of neurobiological pathways previously linked to addiction and smoking such as the central dopaminergic, serotoninergic, and nicotinergic pathways with different aspects of smoking behavior. In order to investigate the feasability of future genetic analyses, we genotyped 14 SNPs in 288 samples of addicted smokers using the LightCycler® 480 System with HybProbe assays....

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Experimental Workflow for Fast and Accurate Genotyping of Scrapie-resistant/sensitive Sheep

05-09-2007

Several scientific studies support the claim that natural scrapie is associated with polymorphisms at three codons within the sheep prion protein (PrP) gene. Genotyping of these codons (codon 136 [alanine, valine], 154 [arginine, histidine], and 171 [glutamine, arginine, histidine]) might enable breeding of sheep flocks with high resistance to scrapie. Fast and reliable high-throughput genotyping of sheep is a major issue, since scrapie is a serious problem in several European countries. To address this, an experimental procedure for DNA preparation and PCR-based detection of codon 136, 154, and 171 polymorphisms was established....

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