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Field-Flow Fractionation - The Universal Separation Principle for Particle and Macromolecule Characterization

22-09-2010

High molecular weight polymers, bio molecules or particles in a range of a few nanometers up to several microns are more and more important in science and technology. Many applications are based on the specific properties of these materials. For this reason, an exact knowledge of the molar mass or particle sizes distribution is essential for later application as well as for optimization of the production processes or quality control. In addition the knowledge about the chain structure of macromolecules or biopolymers as well as about the shape of particles is often necessary. For this reason those samples, which often can be very complex systems, have to be separated according to parameters such as e.g. hydrodynamic volume or molecular weight. After the separation process the resulting narrow dispersed fractions are detected with different techniques....

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New Silicone Technologies for Skin Care

16-11-2009

In today's competitive skin care market, consumers look for a range of benefits, superior aesthetics and cost effectiveness. In response, formulators strive to create products that are multifunctional, easy to use and effective in small quantities. At the same time, the most successful products deliver benefits that stand out from those of the competition. Creams, lotions and color cosmetics must be easy to spread and comfortable to wear, without feeling tacky or greasy. Silicones have been popular ingredients in skin care products for more than fifty years. These versatile materials are known for their emolliency, wetting and spreading characteristics and ability to provide unique aesthetics. As technology continues to evolve, silicones increasingly offer multifunctional, high performance properties. This article reviews some of the newest silicone technologies available for the formulation of innovative skin care products...

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Polyether-Modified Silicones for Cosmetic Applications

20-07-2009

Polyether-modified silicones have a long history of use in the personal care industry as emulsifiers and dispersants, as well as stabilizers for water-in-oil systems. However, because of their external phase type, water-in-oil systems tend to display poor aesthetics, such as greasiness, tackiness and slow absorption. A new polyether-modified silicone, PEG/PPG-19/19 dimethicone (and) C13-16 isoparaffin (and) C10-13 isoparaffin, was evaluated for its potential to aid in the production of stable water-in-silicone and water-in-oil formulations with unique textures and enhanced aesthetics. Various oil phases were studied, including silicone oils, organic oils, and a combination of both. Results of the evaluations demonstrate the versatility of the new material, and prototype formulations illustrate its broad utility...

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Enzymatic Protein Digest for Mass-spectrometric Analysis

26-09-2007

The main focus in proteomic studies is on the identification of proteins in given biological samples. Proteins isolated and separated from a given sample (e.g., whole cell lysates, blood or tissue, protein complexes) by immunoprecipitation or affinity chromatography or two-dimensional electrophoresis must be proteolytically cleaved in the course of sample preparation for identification and characterization. A reproducible cleavage pattern of digested proteins is a prerequisite for the unambiguous identification of these proteins by mass spectrometry (MS)....

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Real-Time PCR Quality Control for Gene Expression

Profiling Using the LightCycler® 480 System

28-08-2007

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) has become the de facto standard for nucleic acid quantification. This achievement is due in large part to its sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, large dynamic range of linear quantification, and its speed. The qPCR technology has matured to a ready-to-use commonly available method in most molecular biology laboratories. Nevertheless, the reliability of the final quantification result depends heavily on all elements in the workflow, such as the quality of the input template (integrity and absence of inhibitors), the PCR assay (specificity, efficiency, limit of detection), and normalization strategy (validated reference genes)....

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Analysis of the DNA Methylation Patterns at the BRCA1 CpG Island

20-08-2007

Germ-line alterations of the BRCA1 gene confer a lifetime risk of 40% for ovarian cancers and of 40%-80% for ­breast cancers. It is likely that BRCA1 acts as a tumor suppressor gene. BRCA1 involvement in breast cancers does not seem to be restricted to familial cancers. Despite the absence of somatic mutations in the breast tissues, a down regulation of BRCA1 expression is associated with malignancy in human sporadic breast cancers....

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Quantification of BRCA1 Expression Level Using Standard RT-PCR Reagents - a Sensitive Method for the Detection of Low Amounts of Transcripts

17-08-2007

Mutations in the breast cancer susceptibility gene, BRCA1, occur in the majority of families with multiple members affected with breast or ovarian cancer. Women who inherit a BRCA1 mutation have 40%-80% risk of developing breast cancer or ovarian cancer. However, up to 90% of breast cancers are sporadic, and mutations in BRCA1 seem to be a rare event in sporadic breast tumors....

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Fugene® HD Transfection Reagent: Superior Performance for Challenging Expression Studies

16-08-2007

The ability to efficiently introduce foreign molecules into cells constitutes an important tool in any laboratory and facilitates studies of gene regulation and protein function. A plethora of transfection methods have been developed for transfer of DNA into mammalian and animal cells. Those methods either utilize the physicochemical properties of the vector-carrier of the DNA or use mammalian viruses. In the first group of methods, some classic techniques are well-known, such as: calcium phosphate, DEAE-dextran, electroporation liposome-mediated delivery, direct microinjection/biolistic particle delivery, and non-liposomal multi-component reagents. Viral vector systems use both DNA (Adeno-) and RNA (Retro-, Lenti-) viruses....

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