Refractive Index

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  • Quantum gas in free fall

    A sensitive measuring device must not be dropped - because this usually destroys the precision of the instrument. A team of researchers including scientists from the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has done exactly this, however. And the researchers want to use this experience to make the mea more

  • Quantum-limited Measurement Method for Nanosensors

    New fabrication techniques have enabled the development of on-chip mechanical elements whose dimensions are on the nanometre (one millionth mm) scale. Their application, however, has been limited by the lack of sufficiently sensitive techniques for measuring the motion of these tiny devices. A team more

  • New metamaterials that bend light backwards bring invisibility cloaks 1 step closer

    Scientists at the University of California, Berkeley, have for the first time engineered 3-D materials that can reverse the natural direction of visible and near-infrared light, a development that could help form the basis for higher resolution optical imaging, nanocircuits for high-powered computer more

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  • Field-Flow Fractionation - The Universal Separation Principle for Particle and Macromolecule Characterization

    High molecular weight polymers, bio molecules or particles in a range of a few nanometers up to several microns are more and more important in science and technology. Many applications are based on the specific properties of these materials. For this reason, an exact knowledge of the molar mass or particle sizes distribution is essential for later application as well as for optimization of the production processes or quality control. In addition the knowledge about the chain structure of macromolecules or biopolymers as well as about the shape of particles is often necessary. For this reason those samples, which often can be very complex systems, have to be separated according to parameters such as e.g. hydrodynamic volume or molecular weight. After the separation process the resulting narrow dispersed fractions are detected with different techniques. more

  • Polyolefins: Determination of Molecular Weight and Branching Structure by GPC/SEC

    Polyethylene and Polypropylene are so-called Polyolefins. They are produced in large amounts every year. Depending on the process and catalyst used linear or branched polymers can be produced. In case of e. g. Polyethylene there are at least three polymer types: HDPE (High Density Polytheylene), LDPE (Low Density Polyethylene) and LLDPE (Linear Low Density Polytehylene). HDPE and LLDPE are made of linear or only slightly branched macromolecules with a high level of crystallinity. They form a dense structure in the final product. LDPE is made of highly branched molecules that form a final structure with low density due to a low degree of crystallinity. more

  • Good Reasons to Use ATR Libraries

    Transmission spectroscopy was the only method in general use until the early 1960s. The first applications of attenuated total reflection (ATR) or internal reflection spectroscopy were reported independently by Fahrenfort and Harrick. Especially macromolecular materials (rubbers, fibers, fabrics, coatings, laminates etc), which often failed to yield useful transmittance spectra, became accessible for infrared spectroscopic investigations by the ATR technique. Meanwhile, the ATR technique has been proven to be an extremely useful technique for material analysis and has become more widely used for all but gaseous samples. more

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